The un-known "Evolution" road from "NOTHING/NADA" to the first animal and plant CELL...!
 Evolution "magic wishful thinking" #2:
14 October 2009
How life evolved: 10 steps to the first cells
Back to feature: Was our oldest ancestor a proton-powered rock?
We may never be able to prove beyond any doubt how life first evolved. But of the many explanations proposed, one stands out – the idea that life evolved in hydrothermal vents deep under the sea. Not in the superhot black smokers, but more placid affairs known as alkaline hydrothermal vents.
This theory can explain life’s strangest feature, and there is growing evidence to support it.
Earlier this year, for instance, lab experiments confirmed that conditions in some of the numerous pores within the vents can lead to high concentrations of large molecules. This makes the vents an ideal setting for the “RNA world” widely thought to have preceded the first cells.
If life did evolve in alkaline hydrothermal vents, it might have happened something like this:
Water percolated down into newly formed rock under the seafloor, where it reacted with minerals such as olivine, producing a warm alkaline fluid rich in hydrogen, sulphides and other chemicals – a process called serpentinisation.
This hot fluid welled up at alkaline hydrothermal vents like those at the Lost City, a vent system discovered near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 2000.
Unlike today’s seas, the early ocean was acidic and rich in dissolved iron. When upwelling hydrothermal fluids reacted with this primordial seawater, they produced carbonate rocks riddled with tiny pores and a “foam” of iron-sulphur bubbles.
Inside the iron-sulphur bubbles, hydrogen reacted with carbon dioxide, forming simple organic molecules such as methane, formate and acetate. Some of these reactions were catalysed by the iron-sulphur minerals. Similar iron-sulphur catalysts are still found at the heart of many proteins today.
The electrochemical gradient between the alkaline vent fluid and the acidic seawater leads to the spontaneous formation of acetyl phosphate and pyrophospate, which act just like adenosine triphosphate or ATP, the chemical that powers living cells.
These molecules drove the formation of amino acids – the building blocks of proteins – and nucleotides, the building blocks for RNA and DNA.
Thermal currents and diffusion within the vent pores concentrated larger molecules like nucleotides, driving the formation of RNA and DNA – and providing an ideal setting for their evolution into the world of DNA and proteins. Evolution got under way, with sets of molecules capable of producing more of themselves starting to dominate.
Fatty molecules coated the iron-sulphur froth and spontaneously formed cell-like bubbles. Some of these bubbles would have enclosed self-replicating sets of molecules – the first organic cells. The earliest protocells may have been elusive entities, though, often dissolving and reforming as they circulated within the vents.
The evolution of an enzyme called pyrophosphatase, which catalyses the production of pyrophosphate, allowed the protocells to extract more energy from the gradient between the alkaline vent fluid and the acidic ocean. This ancient enzyme is still found in many bacteria and archaea, the first two branches on the tree of life.
Some protocells started using ATP as well as acetyl phosphate and pyrophosphate. The production of ATP using energy from the electrochemical gradient is perfected with the evolution of the enzyme ATP synthase, found within all life today.
Protocells further from the main vent axis, where the natural electrochemical gradient is weaker, started to generate their own gradient by pumping protons across their membranes, using the energy released when carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen.
This reaction yields only a small amount of energy, not enough to make ATP. By repeating the reaction and storing the energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, however, protocells “saved up” enough energy for ATP production.
Once protocells could generate their own electrochemical gradient, they were no longer tied to the vents. Cells left the vents on two separate occasions, with one exodus giving rise to bacteria and the other to archaea.
...until SCIENCE EVOLUTION makes in a LABORATORY the first true PLANT and ANIMAL CELL, that is "LIFE", we can surely affirm EVOLUTION is merely a HYPOTHESIS at its best if not merely a non-logic assumption...!
Please refer to: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9841/
The First Cell
It appears that life first emerged at least 3.8 billion years ago, approximately 750 million years after Earth was formed (Figure 1.1). How life originated and how the first cell came into being are matters of speculation, since these events cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. Nonetheless, several types of experiments provide important evidence bearing on some steps of the process.
...EVOLUTION as Science is really in logic and pure logic, merely "WISHFUL THINKING", because they are only imagining making the first cell, which they have not been able to make much less make LIFE in a laboratory...!!!
...WE CAN ALL BE SURE THAT "JEHOVAH nor JESUS" made the first cell...!
...AND WE CAN BE ASSURED, that because you THINK you cannot stop the regressive LOOP, of explaining where did the GODS/entities come from, equally you cannot explain the RATIONAL from the IRRATIONAL (the ANIMATE from the INANIMATE), of MOTHER NATURE...! We only cannot explain this regressive loop of ORIGINS...!
...AND THUS we are only in the PRESENCE of "ABYSSES of knowledge/WHICH IS knowledge very difficult and complex to find out", and not ignorant SCIENCE EVOLUTION...!
Friday, September 2, 2016
Understanding Evolution! Berkeley.edu
Welcome to Evolution 101!
by the Understanding Evolution teamWhat is evolution and how does it work? Evolution 101 provides the nuts-and-bolts on the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. You can explore the following sections:
Macroevolution generally refers to evolution above the species level. So instead of focusing on an individual beetle species, a macroevolutionary lens might require that we zoom out on the tree of life, to assess the diversity of the entire beetle clade and its position on the tree.
- An introduction to evolution
Evolution briefly defined and explained
- The history of life: looking at the patterns
How does evolution lead to the tree of life?
- Mechanisms: the processes of evolution
How does evolution work?
How does evolution work on a small scale?
What are species anyway, and how do new ones evolve?
How does evolution work on a grand scale?
- The big issues
What are some of the big questions that evolutionary biologists are trying to answer?
...in logic and pure/complete logic, Evolution does not comply with all of logic...! there is not the complete needed and apparent data and information needed!
...Evolution simply denies anything else than "matter"! And affirms as only acceptable theory "lifeless matter" making life and intelligence!
...Pure Logic denies the Bible in nearly all its content, as mere myths made faith by the Roman Emperor Constantine, and later the Bible of the 4th Century and after.
...in my usage of pure/complete logic definitions, I have not found out really if Evolution could be true somehow, nor do understand it to be true! Not even if it inexplicably happened! There is no road fram for it to happen fortuitously merely! Evolutionists even deny this.